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Europe at the turn of the 20th century: Edwardian.

Machiavelli - To the Renaissance (7 players)
Italy during the birth of the Renaissance.
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Variant Parameters (Version: 1 / Code: 0.7):

Special rules/information:

This variant is based on Scenario VIII (To the Renaissance) from Machiavelli Version 2.

The start date is Spring 1253.

Every country can build on all supply centers they own.

Starting Positions:

Aragon - A Palermo, F Messina, F Sardinia

Avignon - A Avignon, A Naples, F Marseilles, F Bari

Florence - A Piombino, A Florence, A Pisa

Milan - A Cremona, A Milan, A Pavia

Genoa - F Genoa, F Savoy, A Modena

Papacy - A Perugia, A Rome, F Ancona

Venice - A Padua, A Ferrara, F Venice

Background: As a result of both continual opposition by the Papacy and the rising influence of the Italian city states, the Holy Roman Empire's hold on northern Italy was virtually at an end. In the south too, the descendants of Frederick II found their power stripped from them by the active cooperation of Pope Urban IV and his French favorite, Charles of Anjou. Charles brought an army to southern Italy, defeated Frederick's son Manfred in battle, and seized what was left of Imperial power there, calling himself King of Naples. Deeply resenting French influence in their affairs, the Sicilians called upon Pedro III of Aragon (who was related to Frederick by marriage) for military assistance. Pedro defeated Charles and became King of Sicily. In the ensuing years Pedro's descendants extended the power of Aragon to include both Corsica and Sardinia. Thus, by the end of the century, southern Italy was divided between the French and the Spanish. The Holy Roman Empire had been effectively excluded from the Italian peninsula.

In the north, the trade rivalries between Venice and Genoa had led to open warfare. Genoa, in this period, gained the upper hand and reached the peak of its power and prestige. (It was at this time that Marco Polo, who had since returned from China, was captured by the Genoese and imprisoned.) Milan also grew in importance as the leading manufacturing center on the Lombard plain, while Florence on the other side of the Apennines began to acquire neighboring lands and to increase its military muscle. In a short period of time, Florence became the cultural capital of Europe and the birthplace of the Renaissance.

Province abbreviations:

ALB - Albania

ANC - Ancona

AQU - Aquila

ARE - Arezzo

AVI - Avignon

BAR - Bari

BER - Bergamo

BOL - Bologna

BOS - Bosnia

CAP - Capua

CEN - Central Mediterranean

COR - Corsica

CRE - Cremona

CRI - Carinthia

CRN - Carinthia

CRO - Croatia

DAL - Dalmatia

DUR - Durazzo

FER - Ferrara

FLO - Florence

FOR - Formova

FRI - Friulia

GEN - Genoa

GOL - Gulf of Lyon

GON - Gulf of Naples

HER - Hergozovina

ION - Ionian Sea

IST - Istria

LIG - Ligurian Sea

LOW - Lower Adriatic Sea

LUC - Lucca

MAN - Mantua

MAR - Marseilles

MES - Messina

MIL - Milan

MOD - Modena

MON - Montferrat

NAP - Naples

OTR - Otranto

PAD - Padua

PAL - Palermo

PAR - Parma

PAT - Patrimony

PAV - Pavia

PER - Perugia

PIO - Piombino

PRO - Provence

PSA - Pisa

PST - Pistoia

RAG - Ragusa

ROM - Rome

SAR - Sardinia

SAV - Savoy

SIE - Siena

SLA - Slavonia

SLE - Salerno

SLU - Saluzzo

SPO - Spoleto

SWI - Swiss

TRN - Trent

TRV - Treviso

TUN - Tunis

TUR - Turin

TYN - Tyrrhenian Sea

TYR - Tyrolia

UPP - Upper Adriatic Sea

URB - Urbino

VEN - Venice

VER - Verona

WES - Western Mediterranean